Two Types of Design Argument: Type I: The Classical (âOld Schoolâ) Design Argument: -This version is an argument from analogy. Since the world, on this analysis, is closely analogous to the most intricate artifacts produced by human beings, we can infer “by all the rules of analogy” the existence of an intelligent designer who created the world. Although Collins is certainly correct in thinking the observation of fine-tuning provides a reason for accepting the Design Hypothesis and hence rational ground for belief that God exists, that reason is simply not strong enough to do much in the way of changing the minds of either agnostics or atheists. Since the concepts of design and purpose are closely related, design arguments are also known as teleological arguments, which incorporates “telos,” the Greek word for “goal” or “purpose.”. Schlesinger argues that the fact that the universe is fine-tuned for life is improbable in exactly the same way that John’s winning three consecutive lotteries is improbable. The Republican Party filed suit against Caputo, arguing he deliberately rigged the ballot to favor his own party. Since chance-driven evolutionary processes would not select organisms with the precursor, intelligent design is a better explanation for the existence of organisms with fully functional cilia. According to the Chance Lottery Hypothesis, John Doe’s numbers were drawn by chance. If this highly speculative hypothesis is correct, then there is nothing particularly suspicious about the fact that there is a fine-tuned universe, since the existence of such a universe is inevitable (that is, has probability 1) if all every material universe is eventually realized in the multiverse. When used in reference to knowledge questions, it means a type of knowledge which is derived without experience or observation. Unlike the first program which starts afresh with each try, the second program builds on previous steps, getting successively closer to the program as it breeds from the sequence closest to the target. Outline the Key Concepts of the Design Argument [21 marks] The design argument is also referred to at the Teleological Argument stemmed from the Greek work âTelosâ meaning end or purpose. Scientists have determined that life in the universe would not be possible if more than about two dozen properties of the universe were even slightly different from what they are; as the matter is commonly put, the universe appears “fine-tuned” for life. This is an argument in which the premises are supposed to support the conclusion in such a way that if the premises are true, it is improbable that the conclusion would be false. The problem, however, is that the claim that a complex system has some property that would be valued by an intelligent agent with the right abilities, by itself, simply does not justify inferring that the probability that such an agent exists and brought about the existence of that system is not vanishingly small. Contemporary versions of the design argument typically attempt to articulate a more sophisticated strategy for detecting evidence of design in the world. The Design Argument . At the end of this period, it compares all of the sequences with the target sequence METHINKS IT IS LIKE A WEASEL and keeps the sequence that most closely resembles it. Monotheism is the belief that god and the world are identical, Monotheism is the belief that a plurality of gods / creators could exist, An evidentialist is one who claims that belief in god must be supported by objective evidence, Both theists and atheists could be evidentialist, The cosmological argument for god is a type of a posteriori argument, Thomas Aquinas believed that it was logically possible that the world has always existed without a beginning, Thomas Aquinas believed that the world has always existed without a beginning, The opposite of contingent being is a necessary being, The teleological argument is a type of a priori argument, Another name for the teleological argument is the argument from design, Intelligent design theory is an attempt to show that the theory of evolution by itself is able to explain the appearance of design in the world, The fine-tuned universe argument for god attempts to refute the claim that the universe was produced by the Big Bang, The ontological argument is an example of an a priori argument, Anselm believed that god was so far beyond human reason that it was impossible for the mind to conceive of him, Anselm's critic, Gaunilo, rejected the ontological argument because he was an atheist, Anselm assumes that necessary existence is a property that makes a being more perfect, According to Pascal, deciding whether or not to believe in god is not an optional decision, The problem of evil is the problem of getting people to turn from their evil ways to do good, The problem of evil is used by the atheist to provide positive evidence for the nonexistence of god, A theodicy is an attempt to justify god's permitting evil to occur, The greatest good argument claims that allowing human free will is necessary in order to achieve the greatest good possible for a human, The free will defense claims that god could not create free agents with the guarantee that they would always do what was good, D: there is not sufficient evidence to support either theism or atheism, B: the attempt to prove god's existence and that there are no supernatural beings, Which authors defended versions of the cosmological argument in your readings, The principle of sufficient reason states that, A: everything that exists must have a reason that explains its experience and its properties, The teleological argument argues for the existence of god on the basis of, A: the evidence of design in the universe, In his argument for god, William Paley uses the analogy of, The notion of "specified complexity" is a term identified with which position, D: anti-Darwinian intelligent design theorists, The anthropic principle plays a key role in the debate concerning, Anselm's argument may be viewed as a reduction ad absurdum argument because, A: he begins with a premise that is the opposite of what he wants to prove and shows that it leads to a contradiction, Which of the following is a premise in Anselm's argument, C: necessary existence is greater that non-necessary existence, Gaunilo's point concerning the island is that, B: the ontological argument could be used to prove the necessary existence of a perfect island, Pascal's discussion of gambling and religious belief is intended to show that, A: there is more to gain and less to risk in believing in god, According to William James, an essential condition for an act of faith to be a reasonable option is, C: the decision one way or the other is unavoidable, A: the presence of human moral evil needs explanation but natural evils do not, B: terrible events such as tornadoes that are produced by nature, Which statement best characterizes John Hick's position, B: even and all-powerful god could not make free persons into ready-made, perfected moral agents, B: there are some things that are logically impossible for god to do. The validity of inductive arguments can vary from 0% to 100% as they are based on empirical observation and not internal logic. As is readily evident, the above reasoning, by itself, provides very weak support for the Theistic Lottery Hypothesis. The consequence will be differential reproduction down the generations—in other words, natural selection (Huxley 1953, 4). It is worth noting that Aquinas’s version of the argument relies on a very strong claim about the explanation for ends and processes: the existence of any end-directed system or process can be explained, as a logical matter, only by the existence of an intelligent being who directs that system or process towards its end. Design theorists distinguish two types of complexity that can be instantiated by any given structure.